Indefinite and Definite Articles in English Grammar – English Urdu
There are two types of articles,
(a) Indefinite Article (b) Definite articles
There are two indefinite articles. (a) a (b) an
Indefinite article “a” is used before singular common noun giving a starting consonant sound.
Example: a boy, a girl, a unit, a university, a unit, a one eyed man etc.
Indefinite article “an” is used before singular common noun giving a starting vowel sound.
Example: an orange, an apple, an umbrella, an hour, an honest man, a/an hotel, a/an historical place etc.
Q: Fill in the blanks with a, an or X.
_ Orange, Banana, Boys, formula, _ formulae, MA, _ SHO, MPA,
FIFA, NATO, university, honest man, unit, heir, _ BBA, one-eyed man
bill, bills, Bill, _ Tree.
‘The’ is a definite article. It has two main uses:
(a) Before Specific Proper Nouns:
(i) Before Ocean names:
The Pacific Ocean, The Atlantic Ocean, The Indian Ocean, The Arctic Ocean, The Antarctic Ocean.
(ii) Before Sea Names:
The Arabian Sea, The Dead sea, The Red sea, The Yellow sea, The Black sea, The Mediterranean sea etc.
(iii) Before Rivers:
The Nile, The Amazon, The Danube, The Indus, The Chenab, The Jehlum, The Ganges, The Euphrates, The Tigris etc.
(iv) Before Canals:
The Suez canal etc.
(v) Before Gulf/Bay:
The Hudson bay, The Hawks bay, The Bay of Bengal, The Persian gulf, The Gulf of Mexico etc.
(vi) Before Holy Books:
The Holy Quran, The Bible, The Torah, The New Testament, The Gospel, The Geeta, The Ramayana, The Rig Vedas, The Guru Granth Sahib, The Toe Te Chin, The Avesta etc.
(vii) Before modern and classical wonders of the World:
The Great Pyramids of Giza, The Hanging of Babylon, The Temple of Artemis, The Colossus of Rhodes, The Statue of Zeus, The Lighthouse of Alexandria, The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus.
The Taj Mahal, The Roman Colloseum, The Chichen Itza, The Macchu Picchu, The Great Wall of China, The Sphinx, The Leaning tower of Pisa.
(viii) Before Designations:
The Editor, The Prime Minister, The President, The Principal, The Manager, The Headmaster etc.
(ix) Before Titles:
The Nobel Prize, The Nishan-e-Haider, The Hilal-e-Imtiaz, The Sitara-e-Jurrat, The Oscar etc.
(x) Before Directions:
The East, The South, The North, The West.
(xi) Before Ships name:
The Titanic, The Queen Mary, The HMS Birkenhead, The Marie Celeste, The Flying Dutchman, The Santa Maria etc.
(xii) Before Train Name:
The Shalimar Express, the Tezgam, The Samjhota Express, The Night Coach, The Shah Latif Express
(xiii) Before Planetary Objects/Astronomical Bodies/Heavenly Bodies:
The Mercury, The Venus, The Earth, The Mars, The Jupiter, The Saturn, The Uranus, The Neptune, The Pluto, The Ceres, The Sedna, The Quoar, The Make-Make, The Hauema, The Eris, The Ganymede, The Europa, The Callisto, The Io, The Titan, The Sun, The Moon, The Alpha Centauri, The Polaris, The Sirius, The Pillars of Creation, The Orion Nebula, The Andromeda Galaxy, The Virgo Super cluster, The Universe.
(xiv) Before Musical Instruments:
The Piano, The guitar, The sitar, The violin, The xylophone, the harmonium etc.
(xv) Before Nations:
The Muslims, the Hindus, The Christians, The Jews, The Roman Catholics, The Protestants, The Anglicans, The Sikhs, The Jains etc.
(xvi) Before Islands:
The Manora, the Bhit Islands, The Easter Islands, The Caribbean Islands etc.
(xvii) Before some countries name:
‘S’ at the end: The Philippines, The Maldives, The West Indies, The Laos, The Andamans, The Bahamas etc.
‘’Republic” or “United”: The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, The People’s republic of China, The United States of America, The United Kingdom, The USSR, The UAE, The UAR, The Irish Republic etc.
(xviii) Before Desert:
The Great Sahara Desert, The Gobi Desert, The Kalahari Desert, The Atacama Desert, The Thar Desert, The Rajhastan Desert etc.
(xix) Before mountain ranges:
The Himalayas, The Karakoram, The Hindu Kush, The Andes, the Alps etc.
(i) Before superlative degree adjective: K-2 is the highest peak in Pakistan.
(ii) Before Ordinal Dates: I‘ll celebrated by birthday on the 29th of February.
(iii) Before Double Comparatives: The higher you go, the cooler it is.
(iv) Before Common Noun denoting whole group: The dog is a faithful animal.
Exception: (Man is Mortal)
(v) Before common noun described earlier: I have bought a mobile. The mobile has 5 MP camera.
(vi) Before definite common noun: These are the boys who made a noise in the class.
(vii) Before common noun used as a proper noun: Faisal is the Hitler of his class.
(viii) Before adjective used as noun: The rich should help the poor.
(ix) The + Adjective + Proper Noun: The Great Alexander was a king.
(x) The + Noun + of + Noun: The gold of South Africa is very precious.
(c) Omission of Article/Zero article/No Article Usage: (X)
(i) Name of Persons
(ii) Name of town, city, country, province, state, continent (Except the Punjab)
(iii) Name of individual mountain (Mount Everest, K2, Nanga Parbat, Tirch Mir, Rakaposhi, Mount Kilimanjaro, Mons Olympus)
(iv) Name of lakes (Caspian Sea)
(v) Material nouns and abstract nouns.
(vi) Before relations (Mother, Father, Sister, Brother etc.
(vii) Before meal (Biryani, Chicken Karahi, Zinger)
(viii) Before meal time (Breakfast, Lunch, Hi tea, Dinner, Supper)
(ix) Before Subjects (English, Maths, Chemistry)
(x) Before languages (Persian, Hindi, English, Sindhi) except the English language, the Sindhi language etc.
(xi) Before indefinite plural common nouns: Boys are intelligent.
(xii) Before days / month: Monday, Tuesday, June, July etc.
Assignment#2 Topic (Articles)
Q: Fill in the blanks with A, An, The, X.
(i) We were going to _ Lake Baikal. (ii) I have purchased new house. There are three rooms in house. (iii) I have purchased Dawn Newspaper and Express Newspaper. (iv) We planned to visit _ Himalayas and intend to climb Mount Everest.
(v) Pacific Ocean is _ biggest ocean in the world. (vi) I hate Chemistry but I love English language. (vii) I visited my Uncle’s home. He lives in _ Lahore. (viii) Osama is my best friend. He lives in _ Netherlands. (ix) slower you write, _ more time is wasted. (x) My ring is made up of _ gold