Root List – Prefixes – Suffixes – English Urdu

ROOT LIST – Prefixes – Suffixes

Adjective suffixes: Noun or verb + suffix
Suffixes change word class, e.g. from verb to noun or noun to adjective, but they can also change meaning (see sections B and C below).
Noun or verb + suffix
Noun or Verb Suffix Adjectives
danger, fame -ous dangerous, famous (= well-known)
music, politics industry, economics -al musical, political, industrial, economical (= saves you money)
cloud, fog, sun, dirt -y cloudy, foggy, sunny, dirty (not clean)
attract, create -ive attractive (= pretty, nice to look at); creative (= ableto produce new ideas; with imagination)
Note: Sometimes there is a spelling change. Here are common examples:
double the consonant,
leave out the final ‘e’,
leave out the final’s’ before ‘al’,
change ‘y’ to ‘i’ before ‘al’,
-able /abl/
This suffix (also -ible in some words) is used to form many adjectives from nouns or verbs:
knowledgeable (= knows a lot)
suitable (= right/correct for a particular situation)
Quite often, -able (and -ible) has the meaning ‘can be done’.
Something that is washable ‘can be washed’.
comprehensible (= can be comprehended or understood)
reliable (= can be relied on or trusted, e.g. a car or other machine that never goes wrong or breaks down).
Words ending -able quite often express the opposite meaning by adding the prefix un-:
unbreakable (= cannot be broken)
Words ending -ible add the prefix in-:
inflexible (somebody who is inflexible has a fixed idea about something and cannot change quickly or easily; an inflexible timetable cannot be changed easily)
inedible (= cannot be eaten).
-ful and -less
The suffix -ful often means ‘full of + the meaning of the adjective:
careful, you are full of care
if you are helpful you are full of help.
painful (= hurts a lot)
thoughtful (= someone who is thoughtful is kind and always thinks about others; a thoughtful action shows care for others)
The suffix -less means ‘without’ + the meaning of the adjective:
if you are careless, you do something ‘without care’.
painless, useless (= has no use or function) thoughtless, jobless and homeless (= with nowhere to live)
Note: You can see that -ful and -less are often used with the same words to form opposites. This is not always true: a person with a home is NOT homcful.

A, AN- not, without
amoral, atrophy, asymmetrical, anarchy, anesthetic, anonymity, anomaly
AB, A- from, away, apart
abnormal, abdicate, aberration, abhor, abject, abjure, abortive, abrogate, abscond, absolve, abstemious, annul, avert, aversion
AC, ACR- sharp, sour
acid, acerbic, exacerbate, acute, acuity, acumen, acrid, acrimony
AD, A- to, toward
adhere, adjacent, adjunct, admonish, adroit, advent, abeyance, abet, accede, acquiesce, affluent, aggrandize, aggregate, alleviate, allude, ascribe, aspersion, aspire, assail, attest
ALl, ALTR- another
alias, alienate, inalienable, altruism
AM, AMI- love
amorous, amicable, amiable, amity
ambiguous, ambivalent, ambidextrous, amphibious
amble, ambulatory, perambulator, somnambulist
ANIM- mind, spirit, breath
animal, animosity, unanimous, magnanimous
ANN, ENN- year
annual, annuity, superannuated, biennial, perennial
ANTE, ANT-before
antecedent, antediluvian, antebellum, antepenultimate, anterior, antiquity, antiquated, anticipate
ANTHROP- human
anthropology, anthropomorphic, misanthrope, philanthropy
ANTI, ANT- against, opposite
antidote, antipathy, antithesis, antacid, antagonist, antonym
AUD- hear
audio, audience, audition, auditory, audible
AUTO- self
autobiography, autocrat, autonomous
belligerent, bellicose, antebellum, rebellion
BENE, BEN- good
benevolent, benefactor, beneficent, benign
BI- two
bicycle, bisect, bilateral, bilingual, biped
BIBLIO- book
Bible, bibliography, bibliophile
Daily Used English Vocabulary Words and Phrases with Urdu Meanings
BIO- life
biography, biology, amphibious, symbiotic, macrobiotics
BURS- money, purse
reimburse, disburse, bursar
CAD, CAS, CID- happen, fall
accident, cadence, cascade, deciduous
CAP, CIP- head
captain, decapitate, capitulate, precipitous, precipitate
CAP, CAPT, CEPT, CIP- take, hold, seize
capable, recapitulate, captivate, deception, intercept, precept, inception, anticipate,
emancipation, incipient, cede, precede, accede, recede, antecedent, intercede, secede
CARN- flesh
carnal, carnage, carnival, carnivorous, incarnate
CED, CESS- yield, go
cease, cessation, incessant, cede
CHROM– color
chrome, chromatic, monochrome
CHRON- time
chronology, chronic, anachronism
CIDE- murder
suicide, homicide, regicide, patricide
CIRCUM- around
circumference, circumlocution, circumnavigate, circumscribe, circumspect, circumvent
CLIN, CLIV- slope
incline, declivity, proclivity
CLUD, CLUS, CLAUS, CLOIS- shut, close
conclude, reclusive, claustrophobia, cloister, preclude, occlude
CO, COM, CON- with, together
coeducation, coagulate, coalesce, coerce, cogent, cognate, collateral, colloquial, commensurate, compassion, compatriot, complacent, compliant, complicity, compunction, conciliatory, concord, concur, condone, conflagration, congeal, congenial, congenital, conglomerate, conjure, conjugal, conscientious, consecrate, consensus, consonant, constrained, contentious, contrite, convalescence, convene, convivial, convoke, convoluted, congress
COGN, GNO- know
recognize, cognition, cognizance, incognito, diagnosis, agnostic, prognosis, gnostic, ignorant
CONTRA- against
controversy, incontrovertible, contravene
CORP – body
corpse, corporeal, corpulence
COSMO, COSM- world
cosmopolitan, cosmos, microcosm, macrocosm
CRAC, CRAT – rule, power
democracy, bureaucracy, theocracy, autocrat, aristocrat, technocrat
CRED- trust, believe
incredible, credulous, credence
CRESC, CRET – grow
crescent, crescendo, accretion
CULP- blame, fault
culprit, culpable, inculpate, exculpate
current, concur, cursory, precursor, incursion
DE- down, out, apart
depart, debase, debilitate, decry, deface, defamatory, defunct, delegate, demarcation, demean, demur, deplete, deplore, depravity, deprecate, deride, desist, detest, devoid
DEC- ten, tenth
decade, decimal, decathlon, decimate
DEMO, DEM- people
democrat, demographics, demagogue, epidemic, pandemic, endemic
DI, DIURN- day
diary, diurnal, quotidian
DIA- across
diagonal, diatribe
DIC, DICT – speak
diction, interdict, predict, abdicate, indict, verdict
DIS, DIF, DI- not, apart, away
disaffected, disband, disbar, disburse, discern, discordant, discredit, disheveled, disparage, disparate, dispassionate, dispirit, dissemble, disseminate, dissension, dissipate, dissonant, dissuade, distend, differentiate, diffidence, diffuse, digress, divert
DOC, DOCT – teach
doctrine, docile
DOL- pain
condolence, doleful, dolorous, indolent
DUC, DUCT- lead
seduce, induce, conduct, viaduct, induct
EGO- self
ego, egoist, egocentric
EN, EM- in, into
enter, entice, encumber, endemic, ensconce, enthrall, entreat, embellish, embezzle, embroil,
ERR- wander
erratic, aberration, errant
EU- well, good
eulogy, euphemism, euphony, euphoria, eurythmics, euthanasia
EX, E- out, out of
exit, exacerbate, excerpt, excommunicate, exculpate, exhume, exonerate, exorbitant, exorcise, expatriate, expedient, expiate, expunge, expurgate, extenuate, extort, extremity, extricate,
extrinsic, exult, evoke, evict, elicit, egress, egregIous
FAC, FIC, FECT, FY, FEA- make, do
factory, facility, benefactor, malefactor, fiction, fictive, beneficent, affect, magnify, unify, rectify, vilify, feasible
FAL, FALS- deceive
false, infallible, fallacious
FERV – boil
fervent, fervid, effervescent
FLU, FLUX- flow
fluent, flux, affiuent, confluence, effluvia, superfluous
FORE- before
forecast, foreboding, forestall
FRAG, FRAC- break
fragment, fracture, diffract, fractious, refract
FUS- pour
profuse, infusion, effusive, diffuse
GEN- birth, class, kin
generation, congenital, homogeneous, heterogeneous, ingenious, engender, progeny
graduate, gradual, retrograde, centigrade, degrade, gradation, gradient, progress, digress, transgress
GRAPH, GRAM- writing
biography, bibliography, epigraph, grammar, epigram
GRAT – pleasing
grateful, gratitude, gratis, ingrate, congratulate, gratuitous, gratuity
GRAY; GRIEV- heavy
grave, gravity, aggravate, grieve, aggrieve, grievous
GREG- crowd, flock
segregate, gregarious, egregious, congregate, aggregate
HABIT, HIBIT – have, hold
habit, inhibit, cohabit, habitat
HAP- by chance
happen, haphazard, hapless, mishap
HELlO, HELl- sun
heliocentric, helium, heliotrope, aphelion, perihelion
HETERO- other
heterosexual, heterogeneous, heterodox
HOL- whole
holocaust, catholic, holistic
HOMO- same
homosexual, homogenize, homogeneous, homonym
HOMO- man
homo sapiens, homicide, bonhomie
HYDR- water
hydrant, hydrate, dehydration
HYPER- too much, excess
hyperactive, hyperbole, hyperventilate
HYPO- too little, under
hypodermic, hypothermia, hypochondria, hypothesis, hypothetical
IN, IG, IL, IM, IR- not
incorrigible, indefatigable, indelible, inept, inert, inexorable, insatiable, insentient, insolvent, insomnia, interminable, intractable, incessant, inextricable, infallible, infamy, inoperable, insipid, intemperate, intrepid, inviolable, ignorant, ignominious, ignoble, illicit, immaculate, immutable, impasse, impeccable, impertinent, implacable, impotent, impregnable, impassioned, impervious, irregular, invade, incandescent, incarcerate, incense, indenture, induct, ingratiate, introvert, inception, incisive, infer
IN, IL, IM, IR- in, on, into
infusion, innate, inquest, inscribe, insinuate, inter, illustrate, imbue, immerse, implicate, irrigate, irritate
INTER- between, among
intercede, intercept, interject, interlocutor, interloper, intermediary, intermittent, interpolate, interpose, interrogate, intersect, intervene
INTRA, INTR- within
intrastate, intravenous, intramural, intrinsic
IT, ITER- between, among
transit, itinerant, reiterate, transitory
JECT, JET- throw
eject, interject, abject, trajectory, jettison
JOUR- day
journal, adjourn, sojourn
JUD- judge
judge, judicious, prejudice, adjudicate
JUNCT, JUG- join
junction, adjunct, injunction, conjugal, subjugate
JUR- swear, law
jury, abjure, adjure, conjure, perjure, jurisprudence
LAT – side
lateral, collateral, unilateral, bilateral, quadrilateral
LEG, LEC, LEX- read, speak
legible, lecture, lexicon
LEV- light
elevate, levitate, levity, alleviate
LIBER- free
liberty, liberal, libertarian, libertine
LIG, LI, LY- bind
ligament, oblige, religion, liable, liaison, lien, ally
LING, LANG- tongue
lingo, language, linguistics, bilingual
LITER- letter
literate, alliteration, literal
LITH- stone
monolith, lithograph, megalith
LOQU, LOC, LOG- speech, thought
eloquent, loquacious, colloquial, soliloquy, circumlocution, interlocutor, monologue,
dialogue, eulogy, philology, neologism
LUC, LUM- light
lucid, illuminate, elucidate, translucent
LUD, LUS- play
ludicrous, allude, delusion, allusion, illusory
MACRO- great
macrocosm, macrobiotics
MAG, MAJ, MAS, MAX- great
magnify, majesty, master, maximum, magnanimous, magnate, magnitude
MAL- bad
malady, maladroit, malevolent, malodorous
MAN- hand
manual, manuscript, emancipate, manifest
MAR- sea
submarine, marine, maritime
MATER, MATR- mother
maternal, matron, matrilineal
MEDI- middle
intermediary, medieval, mediate
MEGA- great
megaphone, megalomania, megalith
MEM, MEN- remember
memory, memento, memorabilia, reminisce
METER, METR, MENS- measure
meter, thermometer, perimeter, metronome, commensurate
MICRO- small
microscope, microorganism, microcosm, microbe
MIS- wrong, bad, hate
misunderstand, misanthrope, misapprehension, misconstrue, misnomer, mishap
MIT, MISS- send
transmit, emit, missive
MOLL- soft
mollify, emollient, mollusk
MON, MONIT- warn
admonish, monitor, premonition
MONO- one
monologue, monotonous, monogamy, monolith, monochrome
MOR, MORT – dead
morbid, moribund, mortal, amortize
MORPH- shape
amorphous, metamorphosis, morphology
MOY, MOT, MOB, MOM- move
remove, motion, mobile, momentum, momentous
MUT – change
mutate, mutability, immutable, commute
NAT, NASC- born
native, nativity, natal, neonate, innate, cognate, nascent, renaissance
NEG- not, deny
negative, abnegate, renege
NEO- new
neoclassical, neophyte, neologism, neonate
NIHIL- none, nothing
annihilation, nihilism
NOM, NYM- name
nominate, nomenclature, nominal, cognomen, misnomer, ignominious, antonym, homonym,
pseudonym, synonym, anonymity
NOX, NIC, NEC, NOC- harm
obnoxious, noxious, pernicious
NOY- new
novelty, innovation
NUMER- number
numeral, numerous, innumerable, enumerate
OB- against
obstruct, obdurate, obfuscate, obnoxious, obsequious, obstinate, obtrusive
OMNI- all
omnipresent, omnipotent, omniscient, omnivorous
ONER- burden
onerous, onus, exonerate
OPER- work
operate, cooperate, inoperable
PAC- peace
pacify, pacifist, pacific
PALP- feel
palpable, palpitation
PAN- all
panorama, panacea, panegyric, pandemic
PATER, PATR- father
paternal, paternity, patriot, compatriot, expatriate, patrimony, patricide, patrician
PATH, PASS- feel, suffer
sympathy, antipathy, empathy, apathy, pathos, impassioned
PEC- money
pecuniary, impecunious
PEL, PULS- drive
compel, compelling, expel, propel, compulsion
PEN- almost
peninsula, penultimate, penumbra
PEND, PENS- hang
pendant, pendulous, compendium, suspense, propensity
PER- through, by, for, throughout
percipient, perfunctory, permeable, perturbation, perusal, perennial
PER- against, destruction
perfidious, pernicious, perjure
PERI- around
perimeter, periphery, peripatetic
PET- seek, go toward
petition, impetus, impetuous, petulant, centripetal
PHIL- love
philosopher, philanderer, philanthropy, bibliophile, philology
PHOB- fear
phobia, claustrophobia, xenophobia
PHON- sound
phonograph, megaphone, euphony, phonetics, phonics
PLAC- calm, please
placate, implacable, placid, complacent
PON, POS- put, place
postpone, proponent, exponent, preposition, posit, interpose, juxtaposition, depose
PORT- carry
portable, deportment, rapport
POT – drink
potion, potable
POT- power
potential, potent, impotent, potentate, omnipotence
PRE- before
precede, precipitate, preclude, precocious, precursor, predilection, predisposition, preponderance,
prepossessing, prescient, prejudice, predict, premonition, preposition
PRIM, PRI- first
prime, primary, primal, primeval, primordial, pristine
PRO- ahead, forth
proceed, proclivity, procrastinator, profane, profuse, progenitor, progeny, prognosis, prologue,
propel, proponent, propose, proscribe, protestation, provoke
PROTO- first
prototype, protagonist, protocol
PROX, PROP- near
approximate, propinquity, proximity
PSEUDO- false
pseudoscientific, pseudonym
PYR- fire
pyre, pyrotechnics, pyromania
quadrilateral, quadrant, quadruped, quarter, quarantine, quaternary
QUES, QUER, QUIS, QUIR- question
quest, inquest, query, querulous, inquisitive
QUIE- quiet
disquiet, acquiesce, quiescent, requiem
quintuplets, quintessence
RADI, RAMI- branch
radius, radiate, radiant, eradicate, ramification
RECT, REG- straight, rule
rectangle, rectitude, rectify, regular
RETRO- backward
retrospective, retroactive, retrograde
RID, RIS- laugh
ridiculous, deride, derision
ROG- ask
interrogate, derogatory, abrogate, arrogant
RUD- rough, crude
rude, erudite, rudimentary
RUPT – break
disrupt, interrupt, rupture
sacred, sacrilege, consecrate, sanctify, sanction, sacrosanct
scribe, ascribe, circumscribe, inscribe, proscribe, script, manuscript, scrivener
SE- apart, away
separate, segregate, secede, sedition
Root List – Prefixes – Suffixes
sector, dissect, bisect, intersect, segment, secant
SED, SID- sit
sedate, sedentary, supersede, reside, residence, assiduous, insidious
SEM- seed, sow
seminar, seminal, disseminate
SEN- old
senior, senile, senescent
SENT, SENS- feel, think
sentiment, nonsense, assent, sentient, consensus, sensual
SEQU, SECU- follow
sequence, sequel, subsequent, obsequious, obsequy, non sequitur, consecutive
SIGN- mark, sign
signal, designation, assignation
SIM, SEM- similar, same
similar, semblance, dissemble, verisimilitude
SOL- sun
solar, parasol, solarium, solstice
SOL- alone
solo, solitude, soliloquy
SOMN- sleep
insomnia, somnolent, somnambulist
SON- sound
sonic, consonance, dissonance, assonance, resonate
SOPH- wisdom
philosopher, sophistry, sophisticated, sophomoric
SPEC, SPIC- see, look
spectator, circumspect, retrospective, perspective
SPER- hope
prosper, prosperous, despair, desperate
SPERS, SPAR- scatter
disperse, sparse, aspersion, disparate
SPIR- breathe
respire, inspire, spiritual, aspire, transpire
strict, stricture, constrict, stringent, astringent
structure, construe, obstruct
SUB- under
subconscious, subjugate, subliminal, subpoena, subsequent, subterranean, subvert
SUMM- highest
summit, summary, consummate
SUPER, SUR- above
supervise, supercilious, supersede, superannuated, superfluous, insurmountable, surfeit
surge, resurgent, insurgent, insurrection
SYN, SYM- together
synthesis, sympathy, synonym, synopsis, symposium, symbiosis
TACIT, TIC- silent
tacit, taciturn, reticent
TACT, TAG, TANG- touch
tact, tactile, contagious, tangent, tangential, tangible
TEN, TIN, TAIN- hold, twist
detention, tenable, tenacious, pertinacious, retain
TEND, TENS, TENT- stretch
intend, distend, tension, tensile, ostensible, contentious
TERM– end
terminal, terminate, interminable
TERR– earth, land
terrain, terrestrial, extraterrestrial, subterranean
TEST- witness
testify, attest, testimonial, testament, detest, protestation
THE- god
atheist, theology, theocracy
THERM- heat
thermometer, thermal, thermonuclear, hypothermia
TIM- fear, frightened
timid, intimidate, timorous
TOP- place
topic, topography, utopia
TORP- stiff, numb
torpedo, torpid, torpor
TORT- twist
distort, extort, tortuous
TOX- poison
toxic, toxin, intoxication
TRACT – draw
tractor, intractable, protract
Classic American Burgers Recipe
TRANS- across, over, through, beyond
transport, transgress, transient, transitory, translucent, transmutation
TREM, TREP- shake
tremble, tremor, tremulous, trepidation, intrepid
TURB- shake
disturb, turbulent, perturbation
UMBR- shadow
umbrella, umbrage, adumbrate, penumbra
UNI, UN- one
unify, unilateral, unanimous
URB– city
urban, suburban, urbane
vacant, evacuate, vacuous
VAL, VAIL- value, strength
valid, valor, ambivalent, convalescence, avail, prevail, countervail
VEN, VENT – come
convene, contravene, intervene, venue, convention, circumvent, advent
VER- true
verify, verity, verisimilitude, veracious, aver, verdict
VERB- word
verbal, verbose, verbiage, verbatim
VERT, VERS- turn
avert, convert, pervert, revert, incontrovertible, divert, subvert, versatile, aversion
VICT, VINC- conquer
victory, conviction, evict, evince, invincible
VID, VIS- see
evident, vision, visage, supervise
VIL- base, mean
vile, vilify, revile
VIV; VIT – life
vivid, vital, convivial, vivacious
VOC, VOK, VOW- call, word
vocal, equivocate, vociferous, convoke, evoke, invoke, avow
VOL- wish
voluntary, malevolent, benevolent, volition
VOLV; VOLUT – turn, roll
revolve, evolve, convoluted
VOR- eat
devour, carnivore, omnivorous, voracious

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